Jumat, 29 April 2011


Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, customs, and other capabilities and habits acquired by man sa a member of society.
Cultural Studies: An interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary and sometimes counter-disciplinary filed that operates in the tension between its tendencies to embrace both a broad, antrophological and more narrowly humanistic conception of culture.
Representation is production of the meaning of the concepts in our minds through language.
Three approaching of representation
1.        Reflective approach
Language functions like a mirror, to reflect the true meaning as at already exist in the word
2.        Intentional approach
Meaning of the word is imposed by the author/speakers
3.        Constructionist approach
Thing, don’t mean, except we construct meanings of them, using representational system.
Culturalism is the idea that individuals are determined by their culture, that these cultures form closed, organic wholes, and that the individual is unable to leave his or her own culture but rather can only realise him or herself within it. Culturalism also maintains that cultures have a claim to special rights and protections – even if at the same time they violate individual rights.
Structuralism is an approach to the human sciences that attempts to analyze a specific field as a complex system of interrelated parts. Although it enjoyed little popularity, it grew to become one of the most popular approaches concerned with the analysis of language, culture, and society.
Post-structuralism grew as a response to structuralism’s perceived assumption that its own system of analysis was somehow essentialist. Post-structuralists hold that in fact even in an examination of underlying structures, a slew of biases introduce themselves, based on the conditioning of the examiner. At the root of post-structuralism is the rejection of the idea that there is any truly essential form to a cultural product, as all cultural products are by their very nature formed, and therefore artificial.
Hegemony is cultural power exerted by a dominant group over other groups. It requires the consent of the majority to keep the dominant group's leader in power.

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